Posts about python (old posts, page 44)

2013-03-08 18:13

Python Trick: the Fundict (or the Diction)

Suppose you have made the choice in the past of exposing a dictionary as part of an object's interface. So, people are doing things like:

object.data[foo]['bar']

And now you want people to not have to specify foo because it can be obtained from somewhere else. In fact, what you want now is to expose something like this:

object.data(bar, foo='foo')

Here's an idea on how to do that without breaking the old code:

class fundict(dict):
    def __call__(self, bar, foo='foo'):
        return self[foo][bar]

That's a dictionary that's also a callable, and thus indistinguishable from a function. A function-dictionary. A fundict. And of couse, you could also do it the other way around, and implement a function that works as a dictionary. A dictionary-function, a diction. But since that's more work, I used this one.

2013-03-04 18:40

Nikola 5.4 is out!

I am thrilled to announce the release of version 5.4 of Nikola, a static site/blog generator

Here's the (incomplete!) changelog for this release [1]:

Features

  • Twitter Card / Open Graph support.
  • Smart math support
  • New soundcould directive
  • Custom "read more" links
  • Better time display, timezone support
  • Better doit integration (Issue #151)
  • Make the whole listings folder browsable (Issue #128)
  • New GZIP_FILES/GZIP_EXTENSIONS options to create gzipped copies of some files (Issue #348)
  • New optional path parameter to new_post command.
  • Wordpress importer: option to not download files
  • Wordpress importer: option to squash newlines
  • Separated BLOG_URL into SITE_URL and BASE_URL
  • Added DISABLED_PLUGINS option (Issue #354)

Bugfixes

  • Added missing </div> in default theme templates.
  • Wordpress import: Description is left empty if no description is found.
  • When running the build command it is now possible to get help.
  • Load jQuery before bootstrap in JS bundle (Issue #327)
  • Generate valid HTML5 for redirects (Issue #276)
  • Fixed "nikola check"
  • Fixed internationalized RSS links
  • Make commands that need to be run in a site fail gracefully (Issue #342)
  • Use localized links on lxml fixer
  • Redirections created during the import from wordpress are now written to conf.py
  • Stop parsing metadata in post file on first blank line
  • Metadata handling cleanups by Tordek
  • Fixed blockquote font size inconsistency
  • Wordpress Import: Do not break indentation (issue #189)
  • Make things work even if SITE_URL has a path (Fix #307)
[1] There are also some extra bits of documentation, and a awesome beta theme called "site-reveal" based on bootstrap and reveal.js!

2013-03-01 12:49

Creating a Site (Not a Blog) with Nikola

One of the most frequent questions I get about Nikola is "but how do I create a site that's not a blog?". And of course, that's because the documentation is heavily blog-oriented. This document will change that ;-)

Since it started, Nikola has had the capabilities to create generic sites. For example, Nikola's own site is a fairly generic one. Let's go step by step on how you can do something like that.

As usual when starting a nikola site, you start with nikola init which creates a empty semi-configured site:

$ nikola init mysite
Created empty site at mysite.

Then we go into the new mysite folder, and make the needed changes in the conf.py configuration file:

##############################################
# Configuration, please edit
##############################################


# Data about this site
BLOG_AUTHOR = "Roberto Alsina"
BLOG_TITLE = "Not a Blog"
# This is the main URL for your site. It will be used
# in a prominent link
SITE_URL = "http://notablog.ralsina.me"
BLOG_EMAIL = "[email protected]"
BLOG_DESCRIPTION = "This is a demo site (not a blog) for Nikola."

#
# Some things in the middle you don't really need to change...
#

post_pages = (
    ("pages/*.txt", "", "story.tmpl", False),
)

And now we are ready to create our first page:

$ nikola new_post -p
Creating New Post
-----------------

Enter title: index
Your post's text is at:  pages/index.txt

Note

The -p option in the nikola new_post command means we are creating a page and not a blog post.

We can now build and preview our site:

$ nikola build
Scanning posts.done!
.  render_site:output/categories/index.html
.  render_sources:output/index.txt
.  render_rss:output/rss.xml
:
:
: [Much more of the same]

$ nikola serve
Serving HTTP on 127.0.0.1 port 8000 ...

And you can see your (very empty) site in http://localhost:8000

So, what's in that pages/index.txt file?

.. title: index
.. slug: index
.. date: 2013/03/01 10:26:17
.. tags:
.. link:
.. description:


Write your post here.

Title is the page title, slug is the name of the generated HTML file (in this case it would be index.html) the date doesn't matter much in not-blogs, same for tags and link. Description is useful for SEO purposes if you care for that.

And below, the content. By default you are expected to use reStructured text but Nikola supports a ton of formats, including Markdown, plain HTML, BBCode, Wiki, and Textile.

So, let's give the page a nicer title, and some fake content. Since the default Nikola theme (called "site") is based on bootstrap you can use anything you like from it:

.. title: Welcome To The Fake Site
.. slug: index
.. date: 2013/03/01 10:26:17
.. tags:
.. link:
.. description: Fake Site version 1, welcome page!


.. class:: hero-unit span6

.. admonition:: This is a Fake Site

    It pretends to be about things, but is really just an example.
    So, don't click this button, it leads nowhere.

    .. class:: btn

    Click Me!


.. class:: span5

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris non nunc turpis.
Phasellus a ullamcorper leo. Sed fringilla dapibus orci eu ornare. Quisque
gravida quam a mi dignissim consequat. Morbi sed iaculis mi. Vivamus ultrices
mattis euismod. Mauris aliquet magna eget mauris volutpat a egestas leo rhoncus.
In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Ut sed mi arcu. Nullam id massa eu orci
convallis accumsan. Nunc faucibus sodales justo ac ornare. In eu congue eros.
Pellentesque iaculis risus urna. Proin est lorem, scelerisque non elementum at,
semper vel velit. Phasellus consectetur orci vel tortor tempus imperdiet. Class
aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos
himenaeos.

[And more in the same vein]

TIP: Nice URLs

If you like your URLs without the ".html" then you want to create folders and put the pages in index.html inside them. Example:

nikola new_post -p pages/foo/index.txt

which will create a page you could access as "http://yoursite.com/foo"

And that's it. You will want to change the SIDEBAR_LINKS option to create a reasonable "menu" for your site, you will want to hack the theme (check nikola help bootswatch_theme for a quick & dirty solution), and you may want to add a blog later on, for company news or whatever.

TIP: So, how do I add a blog now?

First, change the post_pages option like this:

post_pages = (
    ("pages/*.txt", "", "story.tmpl", False),
    ("posts/*.txt", "blog", "post.tmpl", True),
)

And to avoid a conflict (because blogs try to generate /index.html:

INDEX_PATH = "blog"

Create a post with nikola new_post and that's it, you now have a blog in http://yoursite.com/blog (you may want to add links to it in SIDEBAR_LINKS of course).

You can see the finished site in http://notablog.ralsina.me and its full configuration in //ralsina.me/listings/notablog/conf.py.html

I hope this was helpful!

2013-02-25 17:34

Load Testing Nikola

Nikola generates static sites, so load testing it is not very interesting, except as a benchmark for the difference between static and dynamic sites.

Today I was told about blitz.io and since a quick test is free, I thought, why not? The result is quite impressive: a cheap VPS, using gatling as a web server, which is almost configuration-free and not meant for extremely high loads, can handle roughly 9 million daily hits.

Let me say that again: 9 million hits. On a unconfigured $5 server. Here's the report

How much tuning does it take for a wordpress instance to serve that? On what hardware?

And that's only half the picture. Not only are Nikola's static pages incredibly light on your server, we have also spent a lot of effort trying to make individual pages load fast, for a better user experience. Some of the techniques used for fast-loading sites are:

  • Using webassets to bundle CSS and JS into single files.
  • Automatic support for CDNs for the common JS libraries
  • Support for transparently using HTML/CSS/JS/Image compression tools

So, if you try something like YSlow! on a Nikola site, it will give you a score of roughly 93 up to 98 (out of 100) depending on your webserver configuration.

BTW: I really want to get that up to 100. Really want it

So, remember, if your site can be served statically, it's going to be cheaper, faster, safer. And if you ever get 9 million hits a day, it will be available.

Disclaimer:
Blitz.io is sending me a t-shirt ;-)

2013-02-21 17:41

New Nikola Tutorial

Tim van der Linden has written a impressive tutorial about how he used Nikola to create his new site shisaa.jp

It documents the whole process from scratch, starting by downloading Nikola up to building your own theme.

Even if you are already using Nikola you may find some new stuff there, so take a read (also, his theme is so pretty :-)

2013-02-20 10:13

Math Works Now

Docutils has supported math rendering for a while now. That means Nikola should have supported it for a while too, but never did correctly because ... well, because noone ever tried, maybe?

Well, it does now, because Damian Avila has fixed it!

Read more…

2013-02-19 12:49

Nikola 5.3 released

I am happy to announce the release of version 5.3 of Nikola a static blog/site generator. It includes some minor features and a good amount of bugfixing. Upgrading to it should not cause you any trouble, as far as I know.

Here's the changelog:

Features

  • Bootstrap 2.3.0
  • Optionally use content distribution networks for jquery and twitter-bootstrap (USE_CDN option)
  • Improve progressive rendering by moving javascript to the bottom of pages
  • New Brazilian portuguese translation.
  • New planetoid experimental extra_plugin

Bugfixes

  • Make really sure we import the right conf.py
  • Make SLUG_TAG_PATH a config dep for most pages
  • Removed meta title tag for better HTML validation
  • Removed #999 background from footnote backlink.
  • Made footnote references be superscripted.
  • Centered figure's image and caption.
  • Removed outset border from admonitions.
  • Use default theme as last resource for messages/translations
  • DATE_FORMAT option was being ignored
  • Remove trailing "" on windows gallery links (Issue #298)
  • Inconsistent breadcrumbs in gallery pages (Issue #303)
  • Use source files as bundle dependencies instead of outputs (Issue #294)

Enjoy!

2013-02-06 20:37

Nikola 5.2 released!

I am thrilled to announce that you can now download Nikola 5.2. a new version of my static blog/site generator.

What's new in this version? A LOT. Don't let the minor version tick fool you, this version is packed with goodness. Let's start with features:

You can easily embed more content:

  • New vimeo directive for restructured text.
  • Custom "gist" directive providing reStructured text support for GitHub gists.

You can write your content in almost any markup:

  • Textile markup support.
  • Creole Wiki markup support.
  • txt2tags markup support.
  • bbcode markup support.
  • And of course, it still supports reStructured text, Markdown and HTML.

More languages:

  • New Catalá translation
  • New polish translation.
  • New Simplified Chinese translation.
  • Use multilingual Disqus (although it doesn't seem to work)

You can import your data:

  • New Blogger/Blogspot importer
  • Much improved Wordpress importer
  • Extract metadata from filename by using regexp (helpful for importing from octopress or other systems).

You can do fancier and more configurable sites:

  • One-page, dynamic-loading, client-rendered site plugin (task_mustache)
  • Recursive post/story folders
  • New COMMENTS_IN_GALLERIES and COMMENTS_IN_STORIES options.
  • Local search based on Tipue (extra_plugins/task_localsearch)
  • Added comments to image galleries
  • New option RSS_TEASERS
  • New STORY_INDEX option to generate index.html in story folders.
  • Add multi size favicon support.

You can use Python 2.6 or higher ... including Python 3. The only missing bit for full Python 3 support is Google sitemap generation.

And of course, a lot of bugs got smashed:

  • Added sane defaults for most options, so you can have a lean config file.
  • Made layout of the site theme responsive, with collapsing navbar.
  • Use timeline instead of parsing post_pages in generic_page_renderer and task_render_pages.
  • Updated disqus integration code, added identifiers so it works on any URL.
  • Make sure folder links end in "/" in the gallery code.
  • Removed copy of PyRSS2Gen, made it a dependency.
  • Detect "namespace" dependencies for Mako templates.
  • Use consistent encodings in RSS feeds.
  • Refactored disqus code into separate helpers
  • Use the correct extension (or raise an error) on new_post
  • Fix titles that include quotes
  • Updated to current CSS from docutils (was using version from 2005)
  • Avoid needless regeneration of gallery indexes.
  • Always ensure the folder for the new post exists.
  • Get title from filename if not available in metadata.
  • Don't copy sources if they end in ".html"
  • Don't link to unexisting translations.
  • Sort tags case insensitive.

Enjoy!

2013-01-30 17:26

Lunch-hour feature in Nikola: Blogger import

Today at lunch, I added support for importing blogger (maybe also blogspot? They seem to be the same nowadays) blogs into Nikola my static blog/site engine.

What works?

Well, the only site I tried works, mostly.

  • Posts
  • Pages
  • Tags
  • Drafts
  • Blog Metadata (except language)
  • Redirects to keep URLs stable (at least it tries really hard!)
  • URL rewriting in the posts (it tries!)
What's not there?
  • Comments import (it makes more sense to import them via Disqus' import tool)
  • Attachments (images and such)
  • Much testing

It's basically on par with the Wordpress import, except noone has used it for real. So, feel free to try!

(It's nikola import_blogger name_of_the_dump.xml)

2013-01-24 09:54

Refreshed rst-cheatsheet

A while ago, I created a 2-page PDF version of the restructured text quickstart meant to be printed, folded in half and kept handy until you finally remember how to do footnotes (10 years and still waiting, in my case).

It was brought to my attention that the github project did not mention how to build it. Then I noticed that not only it didn't explain that, it was also missing critical files.

So, I added the files, fixed a couple of things that were not working perfectly with the latest rst2pdf and there is now a fresh PDF ready for you!

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