The title is "Why Python is not the programming language of the future" and ... well, I sort of agree with it. The future is a very long time, so I hope at some point Python will stop being used for anything. I even sort of agree with the thesis that Python will not be as relevant as it is now in 5 to 10 years, because ... why not?
Although it's surprisingly hard to find a language replacing another in the past. Python mostly replaced Perl as the general purpose scripting language, and maybe Python replaced BASIC as the beginner's first language, but other than that?
Usually people start doing new things, and those things are done in a newer language, and the old things are done in the old languages ... FOREVER.
That is why there are still COBOL programmers doing business logic in mainframes, there are still FORTRAN programmers doing math code, and there are still C programmers doing embedded, and so on, but there are JS programmers doing webapps, and Kotlin or Swift programmers doing mobile apps, and go programmers doing whatever go programmers do. 2
So, let's look at some of the things in the article. The headings are copied from the original article.
What makes Python popular right now
Well, yeah. So is JORF. What makes it popular is not its age, but that the age has made it possible for Python to have been popular for a long time. Yes, it's circular and a bit uninteresting, but popularity is self-propagating.
The difference between Python and JORF is that Python has a userbase, not age. And how did Python get it's userbase? By being good.
Yep. Also, the author mentions that dynamic typing is nice for beginners. Indeed! And being nice for beginners is why Python is one of the two examples I can think of for a programming language replacing another.
Oh yeah! When you are a casual or beginning programmer, a general purpose programmer is a gift from the goods of computing.
Me? One of my first programming languages was POCO, an interpreted C embedded in Autodesk Animator PRO for DOS. Versatile that wasn't, and indeed forced me to have to learn other languages later on. I would much rather have learned Python instead.
It's also why Python is popular in ML and scientific computing. Learn one beginner-friendly language and do stuff ... it's exhilarating.
Downsides of Python - and whether they'll be fatal
Based on the previous elaborations, you could imagine that Python will stay on top of sh*t for ages to come.
Well, no. The future is long.
Python is slow. Like, really slow. On average, you’ll need about 2–10 times longer to complete a task with Python than with any other language.
Oh, have not tried Ruby, have you, you sweet summer child?
In any case: yeah, Python is not particularly fast. I should translate my "Python faster than C" lightning talk to english sometime. Using just tooling, without changing the code itself, Python can have a variation in performance of 100x. 3
Here you can see it with subtitles if that's ok.
Another reason is that Python can only execute one task at a time. This is a consequence of flexible datatypes — Python needs to make sure each variable has only one datatype, and parallel processes could mess that up.
No. Nope. No no no no no no no. Not touching that. But no.
In the end, it doesn't matter because ...
[...] none of the speed issues matter. Computers and servers have gotten so cheap that we’re talking about fractions of seconds. And the end user doesn’t really care whether their app loads in 0.001 or 0.01 seconds.
Yes, Python is dynamically scoped. However ...
Python tried to transition to static scoping, but messed it up. Usually, inner scopes — for example functions within functions — would be able to see and change outer scopes. In Python, inner scopes can only see outer scopes, but not change them. This leads to a lot of confusion.
If there is a language with dynamic scoping and first class functions where functions can change outer scopes, I really don't want to use that language. 4
Despite all of the flexibility within Python, the usage of Lambdas is rather restrictive. Lambdas can only be expressions in Python, and not be statements.
Yes. If you want statements use a function.
On the other hand, variable declarations and statements are always statements. This means that Lambdas cannot be used for them.
ENOPARSE. Sure, you can't assign to variables inside lambdas. There is no point in assigning to variables inside lambdas, since lambdas are expressions. Also, yes, "statements are always statements".
Other languages, for example C++, rely more on braces and semicolons. While this might not be visually appealing and beginner-friendly, it makes the code a lot more maintainable. For bigger projects, this is a lot more useful.
Citation needed. Also, Haskell is not newer than Python.
Indeed mobile development in Python is not awesome.
A Python script isn’t compiled first and then executed.
Yes it is.
Instead, it compiles every time you execute it
No it doesn't.
so any coding error manifests itself at runtime.
No they don't.
This leads to poor performance, time consumption, and the need for a lot of tests. Like, a lot of tests.
This is great for beginners since testing teaches them a lot. But for seasoned developers, having to debug a complex program in Python makes them go awry. This lack of performance is the biggest factor that sets a timestamp on Python.
I am literally making gestures at my screen.
First of all, there was a whole other section about speed, so why is speed not critical there but it's the biggest factor here?
Also, is the author saying testing is great for beginners but not for "seasoned developers"? Well cover me in salt and pepper because I must lack seasoning.
After this he proposes that Rust, Go and Julia will replace Python in the next five to ten years. Who knows? Maybe?
I suspect Rust is a bit too complicated and low level and Julia too specific, and Go is nice but boring to write. But hey, languages change, things change, I am not a psychic.
Since everyone is in lockdown and I am no exception, I have spent some of my time doing things in open source projects. Let me introduce you two new plugins for Nikola my favourite static site generator.
Yet another implementation of Markdown! And since adding support for new implementations of markdown is easy, I added it.
Marko has some interesting ideas. If a ecosystem of extensions develops, it will be easy to support them on the Nikola side.
Yes, another markdown but, again, one with original ideas. In this case, myst has a lot of reStructured Text flavour, with support for directives and roles.
Of course when using marko or myst in Nikola you also get support for shortcodes so they are extra-extensible here.
If you are looking for a static site generator, I am fairly sure "it doesn't support my favourite markup language" is not a reason not to choose Nikola :-)
One of the selling points of SSGs is that the produced sites are fast and I have always taken care to check, every once in a while, that my site was fast ... but not lately. And when I checked on Google PageSpeed Insights I was horrified to see it scoring 20 points out of 100.
So, I started to see what the heck had happened.
Google PageSpeed HATES Youtube
Each embedded video is seen as 4MB of blocking things loading and making your page suck.
Solution: defer loading them using https://github.com/groupboard/ytdefer
Bundling things still works
It has been years since it was promised that bundling multiple CSS files into a large one or merging multiple JS files into a single script would not be worth it.
Well, according to PageSpeed, it's still worth it. Luckily Nikola has good support for it, so I made sure EVERYTHING was bundled. That also involved getting some things off CDNs and into my assets folder:
Google fonts are SLOW
Like, 400ms for two fonts. So, you can self-host them using https://google-webfonts-helper.herokuapp.com/fonts
- preload the fonts using something like
<link rel="preload" href="/assets/fonts/pt-serif-v11-latin-regular.woff2" as="font">
Check CSS for
Even after bundling them, if a CSS file uses
@import that will still be a separate request.
Check compression and caching
Make sure your web server is doing the right things there.
Remove useless stuff
I was loading font-awesome for ONE ICON. There, gone.
Did it work?
Now the score hovers around 96 to 98 so, yes it did. And indeed the page feels very, very snappy.
So, I noticed that those markdown files had no syntax highlighting! I looked and Misaka does offer something to "highlight things". Here is what it does:
<pre> <code class="language-python"> def f(): pass </code> </pre>
No classes in the elements, no nothing, just a class in the code element! It turns out that is the recommended way to indicate you are showing code:
There is no formal way to indicate the language of computer code being marked up. Authors who wish to mark code elements with the language used, e.g. so that syntax highlighting scripts can use the right rules, can use the class attribute, e.g. by adding a class prefixed with "language-" to the element.
So, I looked for how to actually display those things nicely, and found prismjs.com which looked very nice!
So nice, indeed, that now I hated how my reStructured Text Pages looked!
Therefore, I wrote a new Nikola plugin that replaces docutils' code directive and replaces it with a much simpler one that just tags things as code of a given language and lets prism do the rest.
AFAICS it's functionally equivalent, it supports the
:linenos: option, including
shifted line numbers.
I doubt anyone ever will want to use it but hey, there it is.